ConAltriOcchi blog – 以不同的眼光看世界-博客

"C'è un solo modo di vedere le cose finché qualcuno non ci mostra come guardare con altri occhi" – "There is only one way to see things, until someone shows us how to look at them with different eyes" (Picasso) – "人观察事物的方式只有一种,除非有人让我们学会怎样以不同的眼光看世界" (毕加索)


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Una realtà fragile ma già eterna

Una riflessione spirituale dopo il tragico terremoto in Italia centrale

don Francesco Pesce

Un interminabile elenco di nomi. Il vescovo di Rieti ha iniziato la Messa funebre per le vittime del terremoto di Amatrice e di Accumoli, leggendo uno per uno i nomi dei caduti. Nomi, storie, volti, famiglie spezzate. Mi è venuta in mente la scena biblica in Galilea sul lago di Tiberiade descritta al capitolo 21 del Vangelo di Giovanni. In quel passo alla fine del racconto evangelico, dopo la crocifissione di Gesù’, nessuno parla e nessuno sa cosa fare o cosa dire. La situazione è pesante, Gesù era ormai morto e le speranze andavano esaurendosi. Pietro prende l’iniziativa per togliere se stesso e gli altri dall’imbarazzo e dice “io vado a pescare” (Gv 21,3) e così la vita di prima sembra ricominciare. “ma in quella notte non presero nulla” (Gv 21,3).

Quante notti nella Bibbia, nella vita, nei nostri giorni; quanta fragilità nelle nostre vite nelle nostre famiglie; è una fragilità naturale di una natura corrotta dal mistero del male e del peccato. Gesù ci chiede ancora di gettare la rete, di continuare a vivere e sperare. La rete della nostra vita è destinata a riempiersi, perché è gettata sulla Parola del Risorto, anche se gli apostoli non lo avevano riconosciuto, anche se a volte davanti alle tragedie, non ce la facciamo perché la vita non è un principio da difendere ma una grande avventura da svolgersi con l’aiuto della Grazia. Noi crediamo che arriva sempre un alba nuova dove si può gridare “è il Signore”(Gv21,7) – il grido di amore di Giovanni, o come nel Cantico dei Cantici “l’amato mio” (Ct2,8). Un grido di Pasqua, di amore che vince le tenebre della morte.

Mi ha colpito guardando alla televisione lo svolgimento dei funerali, che quasi tutti hanno fatto la Comunione, cosa non consueta ormai anche nelle grandi celebrazioni. C’era quasi un desiderio urgente e stringente di Pane del cielo, quello vero, quello di cui tutti abbiamo bisogno. “Signore, dacci sempre questo pane. Gesù rispose loro: Io sono il pane della vita; chi viene a me non avrà fame e chi crede in me non avrà sete” (Gv6,34-35). Noi celebriamo infatti l’Eucaristia “nell’Attesa che  Egli venga”, perché   crediamo che un amore che muore, un amore che viene ucciso, ritrova il dono del Dio della vita.

Oggi abbiamo celebrato insieme a tutta l’Italia il corpo, anzi la carne. La parola carne, nella Bibbia,  indica  tutto ciò che è corruttibile, fragile, mortale. Tutta la fede cristiana è un  rapporto tra carnalità e spiritualità.  L’espressione “carne e sangue” è  un’espressione tipicamente ebraica per dire “fragile vita”. Nella “carne e sangue” Dio si fa debole, limitato e quindi accessibile perché assume la nostra  fragilità nella quale dona la Sua vita immortale. Oggi ad Amatrice e Accumoli ancora una volta abbiamo celebrato una realtà fragile, ma già eterna. Abbiamo celebrato  il “pane e il vino”, alimenti semplici della mensa dei poveri, segni della solenne  povertà degli uomini e di Dio. “Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano” è ancora il grido che sale dai paesi devastati dal terremoto, da queste terre che hanno impresse le impronte di  San Francesco e san Benedetto. E’ un grido che già è stato ascoltato da Colui che con l’amore ha vinto la morte. “Dice il Signore Dio: Spirito, vieni dai quattro venti e soffia su questi morti, perché rivivano. Io profetizzai come mi aveva comandato e lo spirito entrò in essi e ritornarono in vita e si alzarono in piedi; erano un esercito grande, sterminato.”(Ez 37,9-10)

 

 


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方济各教宗与中国

Theresa Maria Xiao

「在远东和世界各地,数百万的男人和女人将要庆祝农历新年。我希望在他们的家庭中他们都能经验和平与安详。」亚洲时报在线刊登出一篇完全集中在中国的访问(http://bit.ly/1KTQ8No ; 中文的翻译: http://www.xinde.org/News/show/id/35990.html)几天后在三钟经时方济各教宗用了以上的话向中国人和东亚人致以他的祝愿。农历新年或春节在东亚和东南亚,主要在中国,是个最重要的和有名的节日之一 -我们比较喜欢这些较少以欧洲为中心的名称-。对访问者-终于是一位精通古代和现代中国的汉学家-方济各教宗用赞美的话说中国「中央王国」是一个有「大文化」和「无穷智慧」的「大国」,一个「给世界奉献良多」的国家。

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方济各教宗追随近几位前任的足迹,对中国表示非常关心。不过,他跟其他教宗的区别主要在于他是耶稣会士和拉丁美洲人。这肯定是个「较强的优势」,也许在长期和棘手的「中国问题」上可以裁剪出更大的工作空间。当然,中国把耶稣会士与对话、开放、科学、文化的观念联想到一起-典范式地体现在伟大传教士Matteo Ricci,中文叫利玛窦,的身上。方济各教宗不是来自殖民的西方的事实(这甚至今天中国人回忆那段历史仍是很伤心的一页,一个不幸事件,一个打开的伤口),很可能使中国人视他眼他的前任不一样。西方列强在中国人眼中,常跟外国传教士连在一起。甚至今天仍坚持这观念,也就是说基督教只能为「帝国主义的西方」作出贡献的一个外国宗教。过去有个说法:「多一个天主教徒,少一个中国人」,那是为了强调不相容性,至少在中国人的想象中在中国和基督教之间几乎是「势不两立的」。

方济各教宗很小心地,却似乎有决心地,采取了跟中国和解及对话的道路。当然这是跟随他前任的步伐,尤其是向中国天主教徒写的信(http://bit.ly/1Xcv63I),该信也许是在若望保禄二世教宗任期内已构想,并被本笃十六世教宗实现的。但是方济各教宗降底声调和少留空间给那些无疑有权威性的,垄断性的,尤其是近几年来经常只是控诉中国阴暗面的声音。某些人的某些音调、某些坚持性和某些代表中国的方法,冒着了几乎像是「灾难预言者」的危险,与方济各教宗的教会不一致;那是一个对话的、相互尊重的、和慈悲的教会。该教会在看「与其分开不如联合」的事物,并为之工作。教会是梵二大公会议后的教会,在二十一世纪不能继续「规避」(常用似乎是五、六十年前的老图像来标签)中国,只通过侮辱和伤害到中国天主教徒的定罪和甚至逐出教会,来跟中国建立关系。古代文明的大中国,生活在西元前五百年的道德导师和社会融洽的大师孔夫子的中国。产生了有深度思想的道教,而后演变成有创造活力的宗教灵修的中国,并从印度接受和塑造了佛教,使它跟本土的哲学和宗教传统结合成互相丰富的中国。及至现今,在发展中国家第一个达到千年发展目标的,并在1990-2005年使4亿7千多万的人口摆脱赤贫的中国。这为世界是个具体的榜样,它代表着如果有政治意愿,就能打败贫穷。取了亚西西圣方济各名字的教宗当然没有遗忘这个目标-不像许多的宗教人员,记者和不同名衔的评论员那样。因为方济各教宗能依靠很接近他的人,他们懂得和了解中国并深深地符合他所要走的路线。这当然是个谨慎和有耐心的策略,但不代表关闭和缺乏为了达成妥协而对话的意愿。很多人不喜欢这些话,他们看不到很多大大小小的现实,在那里调解是唯一可行的路。这些人也许不知道「中庸之道」也是中国文化的一种价值-中庸是儒家经典的四书之一。中国文化强调和谐,趋向于寻找它、看见它,甚至在西方观念认为是对立的地方,也是不可或缺的。同时也常常很重视形式,「礼仪」。

对方济各教宗指示的「走出去」的教会来讲,这可能是对话有成效的一个大好机会。以诚意的尊敬,结合深入的实用主义,去看待曾经是和现在是的对方。一个在社会经济发展方面阔步前进,并在国际舞台上取得了一个重要位置的「大国家」。不是没有「阴暗面」-例如环境问题,一个彻底又或许太快的发展的可持续性,社会不平等的日益增加,与国内大量移民现象有关的挑战,人口的老化…更不要提消费主义和急骤的唯物主义了,它们正侵蚀着家庭关系和人际关系,败坏着传统价值和危害着下代青年的未来。中国自己学会了认出这些问题,而现在试图寻找解决之道。

方济各教宗也再次显示他懂得这一切。透过「光明和阴暗」是人类历史、民族历史的一部分,而且必须跟它自己的历史和过去和解,教宗在接受访问时不但对中国说了这句话,而且也是对我们大家和所有国家说的。中国教会也很需要这样的和解。该教会(常以刻板印象、单纯的方式、没有直接认识过它的人为代表)在非常困难的时期保持了信仰。是整个的教会,不光是一部分。这肯定是出自灵感,圣神的倾注的一个礼物,一个恩典。

我们确信并祈求方济各教宗不要弃而不顾而要重视并完成这一切,不要延续僵持状态,仍停留在裹足不前的立场。必须向前看,走的更远,好使普世教会更多地和尊敬地陪伴中国教会,为的是能够较好地面对新的和更近的挑战-同样的挑战也摆在「西方」的教会(更多是一般的社会)面前-要早些面对免得为时已晚。也就是说世俗主义,世俗的生活方式,追求名利和唯物主义,个人主义-这些挑战也冲击着基督徒并可能导致他们对存在的选择产生质疑,使他们的信仰见证变得模糊。教会内还有圣职人员和修女们(文化、神学和灵修)培育的问题,平信徒的参与,和一般来讲大公会议的实践,基督信徒在社会上和文化界的角色与见证,在基督信徒是少数,及富裕生活的增长,开始让年轻人更难做出彻底的生活选择,与完全地奉献给教会的背景中传扬福音……

现在是打破「敌意」的「旧墙」的时候,在共同的价值中找到焦点就能多为缔造世界和平作出贡献,而且也能支持中国教会变成一个真正走出去的教会,这是方济各教宗从不厌倦地指示的话。


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Mary Magdalene and women: faithful disceples of Jesus

Fr. Francesco Pesce and Monica Romano

As expressly wished by Pope Francis, the Congregation for Divine Worship published a decree on 3rd June 2016, by which the celebration of Saint Mary Magdalene, which was obligatory memory, has been elevated to the level of a liturgical feast day. Archbishop Arthur Roche, Secretary of the Congregation, explained that the Pope took this decision during the Jubilee of Mercy “to emphasize the importance of this woman, who showed great love for Christ and was very dear to Christ”.

At the end of Jesus’s life, Mary of Magdala (or Magdalene) was with Mary and Saint John on Calvary, standing underneath the Cross (Jn 19.25). She never fled in fear as the disciples did, she never denied him like Peter did, but was present at all times, from the day of her conversion until she was under the Cross when Jesus died. She was the first person, that Easter morning, to whom the Lord appeared and called her by name. Continue reading


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玛达肋纳及妇女们:耶稣忠实的门徒们

于方済神父和罗木兰

今年六月三日圣座礼仪圣事部公布了一道法令,“遵照方济各教宗表示的意愿”,把抹大拉的圣女玛利亚必守的纪念日提升至礼仪庆节的等级。教宗在慈悲禧年中做了这个决定—-该圣部秘书长阿瑟·罗氏总主教解释说—-“是为了说明这位妇女的重要性,她向基督表示了大爱,并被基督深深的爱着”。

抹大拉的玛利亚(或玛达肋纳)在耶稣的生命高峰,在哥耳哥达山上,跟圣母玛利亚和圣若望一起站在十字架下(若 十九,25)。她从来没有像门徒们那样因害怕而逃避,也从来没有像伯多禄一样否认耶稣,从她皈依的那一天起,直到耶稣去世站在十字架下,她一直是时时刻刻都在场。逾越节当天早晨主耶稣叫着名字显现的第一个人就是她。

在罗马弥撒经书里,如以上所说,从今年开始,七月二十二日举行圣玛利亚·玛达肋纳庆节,瞻礼中有一篇读经取自雅歌:「我遂起来,环城巡行,在街上,在广场,寻觅我心爱的;我寻觅,却没有找着。城里巡夜的卫兵遇见了我,我便问道:你们看见我心爱的吗?」(歌三,2)。这是一篇杰出的经文,自然地在玛利亚·玛达肋纳的一生中接二连三地付诸实行。其实她寻找了她自己生活的意义、她决心寻找耶稣,没有放弃任何领域,不只在她心内,也在她的周围寻找;她不只在神圣的领域,也在世俗的空间中寻找;不只在走向完美的行程中,甚而可说也在失败中寻找了祂。关于这一切,值得一提的是皈依的妓女这传统的认知,没有任何圣经基础。

天主被抹大拉的玛利亚找到了,在复活的主基督叫着她名字的时候就永远被找到了,也就是说祂同时承认这位妇女的见证,和她建立起甚至比死亡还坚强的感情关系。

「女人,你哭什麼?你找谁?」(若二十,15)。『耶稣对她说:「玛利亚!」』(若二十,16)。我们从逾越节早晨这个不平凡和范例式的相遇能汲取一些教導。教会亏欠妇女们很多,她们是复活者主基督的可信和忠实的见证人。当然该从耶稣的母亲玛利亚算起。天主决定以婴孩的形象完整地显示在世界上,所以出生在一位妇女的怀里。他为了证明爱情胜过死亡而复活的时候,首先显现给妇女们。信仰中最重要的两个奥秘—-道成肉身和复活—-天主选择妇女们,信赖她们。在这两个永远改造了世界历史的时刻之间,耶稣在祂短短的生命中,经验了及提高了他跟许多妇女们的友情,这些妇女都是他忠实的门徒们。像今天的许多妇女一样,她们确实代表着教会的一大财富:母亲、祖母、修女、女教师、 许多女义工和为从事仁爱工作及照顾病人、穷人和有需要者的女性员工…这个在许多范围内“照顾他人者”正是女性,在教会的生活中多有存在。我们要像天主一样,把这个存在、这个神恩和这个恩赐的价值充分发挥。

「你别拉住我不放,因为我还没有升到父那里;你到我的弟兄那里去,告诉他们:我升到我的父和你们的父那里去,升到我的天主和你们的天主那里去。」(若二十,17)。我们不要让已经过时的,并且没有圣经基础的,大男人主义和教权主义影响着教会的生活和使命。我们要把越来越多的空间,给于在日常生活中和没有大吹大擂地在教会各个现实内—-牧灵、仁爱、使命和教育机构内服务的妇女们。


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Le Olimpiadi dei poveri

Riceviamo e mettiamo a disposizione nel nostro sito una riflessione cristiana sulle Olimpiadi, che come tutti sanno si stanno svolgendo a Rio de Janeiro in Brasile. E’ stata scritta da Suor Evanilda, brasiliana, dolce e amabile, che si é occupata per tanto tempo in Italia dell’educazione dei bambini e del catechismo in preparazione alla prima comunione, e recentemente é tornata nel  suo Paese. La ringraziamo di cuore e speriamo che possa di tanto in tanto contribuire al blog con la sua testimonianza dall’America Latina, il continente dove vive una gran parte dei cristiani e che ci ha donato il nostro amato Papa Francesco. Un continente di grande sviluppo socio-economico, ma dove permangono importanti contraddizioni e sfide, come le diseguaglianze sociali e la crescita delle sette. Nel logo delle olimpiadi 2016 campeggia la scritta “un mondo nuovo”. Ci domandiamo, anche alla luce della riflessione di sour Evanilda se questo mondo nuovo é aperto per tutti e per tutti presenta le stesse opportunitá.

Dal Brasile, Suor Evanilda

I giovani raccontano che questae Olimpiadi sono una vera opportunità per mettere a fuoco i propri talenti e stimolare altri giovani a saper scoprire le proprie capacità e cogliere altre opportunitá. Dicono che é un modo per far festa, conoscere altre culture e creare fratellanza. Non tutti però possono mettere a frutto questa possibilità.  Per i poveri  infatti, le Olimipiadi di Rio sono esclusivamente un modo di poter lavorare e guadagnare qualcosa in più. Una piccola speranza per migliorare la loro situazione di miseria e povertà.

Vedo e ascolto dai racconti dei ragazzi che incontro ogni giorno che le Olimpiadi qui da noi in Brasile purtroppo sono riservate solo ai più ricchi. I poveri sono esclusi non solo dalla partecipazione ma anche dall’assistere ai giochi, perché i prezzi dei biglietti sono molto alti e non possono permetterseli. Nel nostro Brasile spesso va tutto a finire nelle tasche dei potenti e dei ricchi e questo è uno scandalo non più sopportabile. Nonostante i grandi progressi sociali ed economici, credo che il Brasile debba molto crescere e migliorare in modo particolare per promuovere con piú forza l’accesso alle cure sanitarie e all’istruzione.

Le Olimpiadi  se non portano al bene di tutti non servono a nulla. Possono anche  creare  rabbia e risentimento, perché i poveri sono esclusi e molti giovani  non possono partecipare. Il Brasile non può far vedere solo la sua grande e magnifica creatività e arte. Deve  occuparsi prima di tutto di dare al tutto il popolo brasiliano ciò che gli spetta – lavoro, assistenza sanitaria, istruzione – ed essere capace di distribuire secondo giustizia e verità. 

Certamente è una cosa ottima organizzare le Olimpiadi, perché questo evento porta molti giovani a credere nelle proprie competenze, con la speranza che i loro sogni si possano finalmente realizzare. Spegnere i sogni dei giovani è quasi come un omicidio. Purtroppo la realtà e che i poveri soffrono perché il loro accesso a queste Olimpiadi non è possibile a causa del prezzo dei biglietti per le varie gare sportive, per cui la maggioranza rimane fuori nelle periferie. In termini di opportunitá, se va bene i poveri riescono a guadagnare qualcosa servendo qualche bibita o vendendo delle cianfrusaglie nelle loro baracche o per le strade tra i turisti.

Il Brasile può molto migliorare anche dopo le Olimpiadi, se guarderá il futuro con speranza cercando di investire risorse e imparando dal passato con lo sforzo di non continuare a ripetere gli stessi errori. Che Dio faccia sorgere dei governanti saggi e illuminati, che  soccorrano gli ultimi, coloro che non hanno voce, chi non ha  diritti e dignità. Ancora oggi, purtroppo, da una parte ci sono i poveri delle Favelas che continuano a essere esclusi, dall’altra parte i ricchi e i potenti che godono e fanno festa.


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Maria Assunta ci ascolta anche in un piccolo villaggio dell’Africa

Dal Benin, Igor Kassah

Lo scorso 15 agosto, come in ogni comunità della Chiesa Universale, anche la piccola parrocchia di San Martino nella diocesi di Natitingouha (Benin) ha celebrato la festa della Vergine Maria Assunta in cielo. E’ stata la seconda volta che questa comunitá del Benin ha potuto celebrare questa festa da quando è stata creata. Già dalle 7 del mattino, erano tanti i fedeli radunati attorno alla statua di Maria della Rosa mistica per recitare il rosario prima della Santa Messa prevista per le ore 8. Dopo la recita delle litanie a Maria  Nostra Signora de l’Atacora (Nome del Nord del Benin dove si trova la diocesi di Natitingou), è iniziata la Santa Messa all’esterno della parrocchia. Con canti e balli tradizionali, la processione con la statua della Vergine si è portata all’interno della chiesa. La devozione per Maria è molto forte qui. Al posto del commento alle letture del giorno ho invitato qualche fedele a condividere quello che significa Maria assunta. Dalle risposte ho capito che non era necessario soffermarmi sull’aspetto del dogma, perché per il Popolo di Dio se Maria è la Madre di Gesú non si puo accettare che suo corpo conosca la corruzione della terra. I fedeli non si preoccupano di quando e come Maria è stata portata al cielo. Ho trovato questa risposta originale e semplice. La gente ha anche capito che attraverso l’intercessione della Vergine Maria si puo’ ottenere la misericordia di Dio e la Sua protezione.

Dopo la celebrazione, il coro che ha animato la Santa Messa ci ha fatto ballare con bei canti in onore a Maria. Nel pomeriggio abbiamo anche organizzato un’attivitá di formazione musicale per i giovani della parrocchia, che hanno anche ricevuto un attestato di partecipazione.

E’ stata una bellissima festa e sono convito che Maria avrà chiesto al Signore di aiutarci ad andare avanti con la costruzione della nostra chiesa di San Martino. Confidiamo che per l’intercessione di Sua Madre, il Signore ci ascolterá.


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神圣的危机

安科纳出版社最近出版了意大利电视台的梵蒂冈专家阿尔多·玛利亚·瓦里(Aldo Maria Valli )所著“曾经的告诫圣事”一书,这本书的后序是由鱼方济神父写的,其中对教宗方济各时代的告解圣事做了反思。今年3月10日的罗马观察报在第七版也刊登了该后序。现在,我们把它转载于此。

于方济神父

我们这一代人,过去所接受的有关天主的观念更多是恐惧,而不是爱;到后来进入修院,又加了一种一切都是“应该”的观念,带着这样的观念,很难有一种自由而喜乐的生活。直到今天,在很多领受告解圣事的人身上还能看到这种对天主的恐惧,这种对“应该”意义的曲解。害怕天主,害怕自己,害怕他人,以及别人的评论。告解是一项义务,而不是一种与慈悲天主的随意相遇。我特别为教宗方济各在这慈悲禧年关于“慈悲传教士”的讲话而感到吃惊。我自问:神父本身不就是慈悲传教士吗?司铎的天性不就是一个宽恕的人吗?另外,我也想起我曾在某些告解停亲眼看见过评断人行为的法典条文,就好像是在法庭一样。这也让我回想起那些曾因为某些司铎的严厉而受到伤害的信友们的讲述。这些都帮助我更明白方济各教宗的思想。就我个人的听告解经验,我可以说,透过教宗方济各的行为,恐惧被摧毁了,“应该”的意义也被渴望与慈悲天父的相遇所取代。不是办告解的人指数上升了,而是办告解的质量提高了。有不少人手拿圣经来办告解,因为他们听取了教宗的建议,每天至少要读一段圣经。然后,以他们所读的圣经作为省察办告解的准则。所有这一切,都让我觉得非常开心。这是教宗方济各——天主的使者完成的一个真正的奇迹。感谢天主,我看到的不是罪恶感的增加(我认为很多人已经因为自己的罪而变得很有压力,抬不起头了),而是对天父慈悲认识的深入。我可以清楚地说,如果一个人感觉自己被接纳,被尊重,被鼓励,他就能更深入地认识自己罪过,从而请求宽恕。不仅如此,他还能够明白,在某种意义下,罪过已经得到了宽恕,去告解亭只是为了领受那已经准备好的宽恕之恩,因为就像若望圣史所说的,天主是爱。正因为如此,我觉得谈论告解圣事的危机本身就是一个矛盾;要说危机,也只能说是践行司铎之职方式上的危机,因为司铎更多的时候只待在更衣室,而不是在外面与人接触,神父更关心的是乳香与金钱,而不是他们的羊群。所以说是一种神圣的危机。根据我个人的经验,排在告解亭前的男女比例几乎是相等的。在这里,我想和大家分享两点,虽然我没有觉得有多新奇,但对我的影响却比较深。首先是那些常来教堂的人,他们办告解主要是为了摆脱负重,比较形式化,几乎就是为了接收补赎(以求良心的平安)而告解,而不是为了求得宽恕。这些人是教宗方济各不喜欢的那一类,因为,他们是“共产主义者,生活贫穷理想的人,以及苦行者”,再加上二十一世纪的十字军所宣传的愚蠢说法,他们有的是纯无神论者,有的是很不虔诚的信徒。

我想给你们举个例子:我做神父16年了,每次看着我的教理员(都是非常圣善的人)教孩子们念悔罪经:“我的天主,我忏悔我的罪过,我要远离我的一切罪过,因为我犯罪会得到应有的惩罚…”,我都会很努力地给他们解释说,这不是最理想的忏悔词,经文的意思有待解释,所以,最好是用圣经中的一些忏悔词来替代。对那些在指定的日子必须来办告解的人能说些什么呢,是虔诚?还是被迫?因为只要错过了那个机会,他们的虔诚就中断了,一切都得从头开始。

对我触动比较深的另外一个关于告解的例子是,某些教会新兴团体成员们的告解,其中有一个是非常普遍的。他们办告解的方式几乎完全一样,就像是预先排过的版,完全缺乏对已有美善的感恩。关于这些,我常说:“拜托!从上次告解到现在就没有发生过一些美好的事吗,难道都是罪过吗?”

最后我要说的是,教堂布告板上贴着的告解时间表是一件很让人灰心的事。我能理解神父也需要有时间的计划和安排,但教堂不是邮局的一个窗口。我个人的经验是(我在罗马市中心做本堂),神父尤其在午饭时间和晚上弥撒结束后应留出时间来(以满全教友们办告解的需要)。当然,只有教堂们开着,而且是敞开着,人们才有可能进来。就像是天主慈悲的心,被称为“我们在天上的父”,而不是“我们在告解亭的法官或主人”。


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The other half of the Church

Fr. Francesco Pesce and Monica Romano

You have followed in recent weeks news on the topic of the role of women in the Church. A topic not much treated to tell the truth ( at least in Italy ), with a few “exploit” at times a bit childish, picked up by some newspapers but that then fall on deaf ears. Speaking to the International Union of Superiors General gathering these days in Rome, in responding to a question from a female religious, Pope Francis said he was willing to form a commission to study the issue of women deacons. A topic of a conference held precisely in the days before in Munster, Germany, sponsored by the KFD and other lay organizations. Even at the last Synod of Bishops on the Family, Mon. Paul Andre Durocher – Bishop of Gatineau, former President of the Canadian Bishops’ Conference – had requested access for women to the diaconate which, according to tradition, is not directed to “sacerdotium sed ad ministerium“. In the 90s Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini had hinted at the possibility of the female diaconate and it emerged that there was still need to further study the nature and practice of women deacons in the early Church. In an article by Civiltá Cattolica of 1999, the main aspects of the debate were analyzed , focusing on the distinction between a female diaconate intended as a service (“diakonia” in fact ) and the diaconate as a first step to the sacred orders, such as that for men, from which women are excluded in the Catholic Church. A few weeks ago, some controversy arose about the words of Enzo Bianchi, prior of the Bose Community , who claimed that women could offer the homily.

But what do women , especially Catholic ones, think of those things that affect them? Of their role, their contribution in the Church? We seem to observe that women engaged in the forefront of the Church life do not talk much about this issue, while their actions speak louder than words. And, their contribution in the parishes, in educational institutions, in charitable work, in hospitals and welfare centers and missionary activities is simply extraordinary. Women already have a role in the Church: help the priests in the management of many parish activities, they are at the forefront in the missions, they guide entire religious orders including international ones, teach the Bible and Theology … It should be these women to provide their points of view on their role in the Church. Avoiding standpoints that are weak and covered in a backward feminist approach, which hardly represent them and are unhelpful in launching a global re-valuation of the role of the woman in the Church that – we must accept – is absolutely necessary, for the benefit of the whole People of God, Pope and bishops included.

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Particolar from a painting by Marco Rupnik, Centro Aletti (Rome)

Let’s analyse each steps. The Bible sets off saying man and woman are created together in harmony with equal dignity. Regrettably, misleading interpretations about sin, which are not entirely overcome, contribute to giving the women a  subservient role to that of man, with few places in society.

In the Gospels Jesus performs a real and true revolution: he defends an adulterous woman from death by lapidation; he stops to talk to a Samaritan woman – Samaritans were deemed as “heretics” -; has amongst his dear friends following him several women…not to mention the role of Mary, the Mother of God, and that the Resurrected appears first to two women, who become the first announcers of Easter. But it was the Apostle Paul who, despite his equalitarianism vision of the world – “There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither slave nor freeman, there can be neither male nor female — for you are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal 3,28) – to operate resizing: “I want however you to know that head of each man is Christ, and head of the woman is the man, the head of Christ is God. The man should not cover his head because he is the image and glory of God, the woman instead is the glory of man. Indeed man does not proceed from woman, but woman from man; neither man was created for the woman, but the woman for man”. However he recognises “however, in God, neither the woman is without man, neither the man is without a woman; just as the woman comes from man, likewise man is born from woman; everything comes from God”. Certainly the rigid farisaic upbringing and contacts with pagan populations who – no doubt – in Paul’s eyes were displaying very libertine habits, heavily influenced the position on the woman, affecting her role in the Church. An interesting article of the biblical scholar Marinella Perroni reinterprets the alleged misogyny of Paul and explains how the Apostle of the Gentiles appreciated and took advantaged of the  women for his apostolate ( http://www.stpauls.it/vita/0901vp/0901vp85.htm).

In the millenary continuing history of the Church, until now, many are the examples of women who have been able to impose themselves through holiness, the witness, and the courage of their lives. Often with origins, vocations and very different paths. We think of Matilda of Canossa, a noble woman’s, who helped the Pope at the time of the investiture controversy; Monica, mystic mother of Augustine; Hildegard of Bingen, a benedictine sister and prolific writer; Clare of Assisi, so close to St. Francis; Teresa of Avila and Catherine of Siena, the first women proclaimed Doctor of the Church by Blessed Pope Paul VI in 1970; and many others, up to the modern and contemporary times, like Teresa of Lisieux, Edith Stein, Simone Weil, Gianna Beretta Beretta and Mother Teresa of Calcutta – the latter will be canonized by Pope Francis in September.

The recent popes have shown to understand the importance of the role of women in the Church and have taken significant steps in the journey towards full ecclesial development of the “feminine genius”. But in this, as on other issues, the Church takes its time. The problem now lies in a part of the Church institution that has fossilized into a rigid and conservative apparatus, often experienced as a place of power, which does not precisely address the problem of how to best engage women for the good of the Church. Or even worse, suffering from misogyny, as indeed also a part of our society.

But it is also true that many situations may appear to us different from the way they are because we do not look ahead and do not analyze the issue with greater breath and complexity of views.

In many churches of Europe where the decrease  in vocations and more generally the crisis of faith are more serious, women still play even more roles of responsibility. For example, helping the priests – who administer various parishes across the territory precisely for lack of priests – to open and administer the churches, lead the prayer, even distribute the Eucharist. This also takes place in countries outside Europe, for slighly different reasons – big numbers and immense, often poorly connected areas. Altar girls, hardly seen in Italy and especially in Rome until not too long ago  especially when the Pope would celebrate Mass in a parish, had already been normal practice for some time in other countries, especially in the North of Europe. There are many women, even secular, engaged in several departments of the local church and  assisting the numerous religious orders through associations of the faithful in several parts of the world …

Of course, some questions are legitimate. Why is it that Superiors of great religious orders cannot participate in the conclave and elect the Pope, or at least be part of the meetings before the conclave is held? Would not it be possible for qualified women to be part of the committee that advises the Pope on the reform of the Curia, without having to become appointed cardinals? Such proposal, of women being appointed cardinals, Pope Francis does not seem to have taken into account as he noticed a sort of clericalism: commenting he said that “women must be valued, not clericalized”.

Our response to these issues and questions is to look beyond, returning to the Church of Pentecost and of the Council. The Church of the beginnings described in the Acts of the Apostles tells us that we must be guided by the Holy Spirit. The presence of the Spirit is life for each of us.

Part of the Church thinks of itself in narrow terms, of categories, of past, without being enlightened by the Spirit who gives life. The present and the future await creative responses, which put man and woman, different and complementary images of God, to the service of the Church and the world. If we talk according to the Spirit, our word must be both masculine and feminine. We require a Church where the sensitivity and the intelligence of the woman is also at its full service even in processes involving consultation, decision and governance. But we must not fall into clericalism, the careerism, or – as the Pope recently still warned- in feminism in the Church. It is essential instead to implement the indications of the Second Vatican Council and deal with this issue within that of the need for a wider participation of the laity in the Church’s life. Starting with the problem of theological and biblical formation which, at least in Italy, is still mainly addressed to priests and religious in terms of curricula and organization, which does not always facilitate the participation of the laity. And riconsidering the areas of services provided by priests and religious in the Church. Should they guide all ecclesial congregations? Could more space be given to lay professors in pontifical universities? Would it be inappropriate, for example, to entrust some offices to lay people, allowing more lay people to teach, and leave to priests (in light of the crisis of vocations) the ministry with the people and the administration of the sacraments? It is true also that those in charge of dicasteries and offices of the Church are helped by laity, including experts as consultants, and many consultants are lay people, including women. The number of women who teach religious subjects is also increasing, even biblical and theological subject matters, as well as those in charge of departments and faculties in pontifical universities, and probably are not an exception in many countries of Europe, perhaps even out of Europe.

Let’s us not fall into temptation of viewing the Church as a monolithic institution, often with Western criteria, detached from a specific cultural or historical context. What matters is the full participation of women and the laity in the Church, rather than equal roles for man and women in the Church. Being well aware that Christian anthropologic vision of man and woman by God does not use our common sociological, psychological, historical parameters …

Perhaps what we should work on is a greater participation of the church community from “the bottom”. To enable the Church and the Pope to benefit from the contribution of the laity, some of them having a solid theological preparation and actively engaged in different realities of the Church, often at the forefront at various levels of the pastoral life. But this applies not only to the laity (and women), it also applies to priests and religious. This is why we believe one should look beyond, with a much broader perspective, rather than thinking in terms that are likely to present the issue as trendy, ill suited to the exercise of the ministries in the Church. “They were all together in one place” (At 2,1). A few days ago, the Church celebrated Pentecost. In the Upper Room, the meeting place of the washing of tha feet and the institution of the Eucharist they were all together. Certainly the fear united them, yet they were all together. In the get-together at Pentecost the Spirit bursts and makes all things new. The Church must always start from this togetherness allowing to be guided by the Spirit, because this is the only way to allow the presence of the Risen Christ. Let’ us not betray the Risen One and let not drop the breath of the Spirit. Fruits rather than good intentions will bear witness to what we all – men and women, laity, clergy and religious – have done for the Church.


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一个脆弱而永恒的事实

意大利中部地震灾难之后的灵修反思鱼方济神父

一大串见不到尾的名单。这是列蒂(Rieti)主教为那些在阿马特里切(Amatrice)和阿库莫利(Accumoli)地震中的遇难者主持葬礼弥撒开始时,逐个念到的名字。姓名,故事,面孔,破碎的家庭。这让我想起若望福音二十一章所描述在加利肋亚的提比利亚湖畔的那一幕。福音的最后提到,当耶稣被钉在十字架上以后,再没有一个人讲话,也没人知道要做什么或说什么。那种气氛是非常沉重的,耶稣已经死了,希望也开始破灭了。伯多禄用“我去打鱼”(若21:3)这句话打破沉默,主动帮助自己和其他人走出尴尬的局面,就这样,门徒们的生活似乎有了新的开始。 “但那一夜什么也没有捕到”(若21:3)。

在圣经中,在生命中,在我们的日常生活中有多少黑暗;在我们的生活中,在我们的家庭中又有多少的脆弱存在;这些脆弱都是罪恶腐蚀的必然结果。今天,耶稣还在不断地邀请我们撒网,邀请我们继续生活,常怀希望。我们生命之网的目标是把网装满,因为它是因复活的圣言之名而撒的网,即使门徒没有认出祂,尽管有时候在悲剧面前我们做不到,因为生活不是一个用来捍卫的原则,而是一个在恩宠的帮助下完成的伟大冒险。我们相信,总是会有一个新的曙光出现,那时候我们可以像若望一样发出爱的呼喊“是主”(若21:7),或者像雅歌中所表达的“我亲爱的”(歌2:8)。巴斯挂或爱的呼喊可以战胜死亡的黑暗。

当我在电视里观看葬礼的时候很受感动,因为差不多每个人都去领圣体,这种现象在不寻常的大型庆典活动中也会发生。可以看出有一种对天粮强烈而急切的渴望,那是真正的食粮,是每一个都需要的食粮。“主,请把这样的食粮常常赐给我们吧!耶稣回答说:我就是生命的食粮;到我这里来的,永不会饥饿;信从我的,总不会渴。”(若6:34-35)。事实上,我们是怀着期待祂来临的愿望来参与弥撒,因为我们相信,经过死亡,经过被杀害的爱,才能得到天主赋予人的生命恩赐。

今天,我们连同整个意大利共同举行对身体的纪念,更好说是肉身的安葬礼。在圣经中,肉身这个词是指易腐、易碎、有死的躯体。全部基督信仰就是一种肉性和灵性之间的关系。“体和血”的说法就是希伯来人通常用来形容“脆弱生命”的一种表达。天主在“体和血”内成为脆弱的、有限的,也是可接近的,祂取了我们脆弱的人性,是为了把祂不朽的生命赐给我们。今天,我们在阿马特里切和阿库莫利再一次见证了一个脆弱的事实,但这个事实也是永恒的。我们举行了“饼和酒”的奥迹,饼酒是穷人饭桌上简单的食物,它们是人类和天主神圣贫穷的标记。“求你今天赏给我们日用的食量”仍然是遭受地震灾害国家发出的呼声,从这些受灾的地方反映出了圣方济各和圣本笃的足迹。这种呼喊已经得到了那位用爱战胜死亡者的垂听。“吾主上主这样说:气息,你应由四方来,吹在这些被杀的人身上,使他们复活。我遵命一讲了语言,气息就进入他们内,他们遂复活了,并且站了起来;实在是一支极庞大的军队”。(则37:9-10)